by: Medline Plus
BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING
- Have your blood pressure checked at least once a year. If the top number (systolic number) is between 120 and 139 or the bottom number (diastolic number) is between 80 and 89 mm Hg or higher, have it checked every year.
- If the top number is greater than 140, or the bottom number is greater than 90, schedule an appointment with your provider.
- If you have diabetes, heart disease, kidney problems, or certain other conditions, you may need to have your blood pressure checked more often.
- Watch for blood pressure screenings in your area. Ask your provider if you can stop in to have your blood pressure checked.
- Begin cholesterol screening between the ages of 40 to 45.
- Once cholesterol screening has started, your cholesterol should be checked every 5 years.
- If you have high cholesterol levels, diabetes, heart disease, kidney problems, or certain other conditions, you may need to be checked more often.
- If you are over age 44, you should be screened every 3 years.
- If you are overweight, ask your provider if you should be screened at a younger age. Asian Americans should be screened if their BMI is greater than 23.
- If your blood pressure is above 140/80 mm Hg, or you have other risk factors for diabetes, your provider may test your blood sugar level for diabetes.
COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING
If you are under age 50, talk to your health care provider about getting screened. You should be screened if you have a strong family history of colon cancer or polyps. Screening may also be considered if you have risk factors such as a history of inflammatory bowel disease or polyps.
If you are between ages 50 to 75, you should be screened for colorectal cancer. There are several screening tests available:
- A fecal occult blood (stool-based) test done every year
- A fecal immunochemical test (FIT) every year
- A stool DNA test every 3 years
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years
- Double contrast barium enema every 5 years
- CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy) every 5 years
- Colonoscopy every 10 years
You may need a colonoscopy more often if you have risk factors for colorectal cancer, such as:
- Ulcerative colitis
- A personal or family history of colorectal cancer
- A history of growths called adenomatous polyps
- Go to the dentist once or twice every year for an exam and cleaning. Your dentist will evaluate if you have a need for more frequent visits.
- Have an eye exam every 2 to 4 years ages 40 to 54 and every 1 to 3 years ages 55 to 64. Your provider may recommend more frequent eye exams if you have vision problems or glaucoma risk.
- Have an eye exam at least every year if you have diabetes.
- You should get a flu shot every year.
- Ask your provider if you should get a vaccine to reduce your risk of pneumonia.
- You should have a tetanus-diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tap) vaccine once as part of your tetanus-diphtheria vaccines if you did not receive it previously as an adolescent. You should have a tetanus-diphtheria booster every 10 years.
- You may get a shingles or herpes zoster vaccine after age 50.
- Your provider may recommend other immunizations if you are at high risk for certain conditions.
- Your blood pressure should be checked at least every year.
- Your provider may recommend checking your cholesterol every 5 years if you have risk factors for coronary heart disease.
- Your height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) should be checked at each exam.
During your exam, your provider may ask you about:
- Diet and exercise
- Alcohol and tobacco use
- Safety issues, such as using seat belts and smoke detectors
- Women may do a monthly breast self-exam. However, experts do not agree about the benefits of breast self-exams in finding breast cancer or saving lives. Talk to your provider about what is best for you.
- You should contact your provider immediately if you notice a change in your breasts, whether or not you do self-exams.
- Your provider may do a clinical breast exam as part of your preventive exam.
- Women ages 40 to 49 may have a mammogram every 1 to 2 years. However, not all experts agree about the benefits of having a mammogram when women are in their 40s. Talk to your provider about what is best for you.
- Women ages 50 to 75 should have a mammogram every 1 to 2 years depending on their risk factors, to check for breast cancer.
- Women with a mother or sister who had breast cancer at a younger age should consider yearly mammograms. They should begin earlier than the age at which their youngest family member was diagnosed.
- All women over age 50 with fractures should have a bone density test (DEXA scan).
- If you are under age 65 and have risk factors for osteoporosis, you should be screened.
PELVIC EXAM AND PAP SMEAR
- You should have a Pap smear every 3 years. If you have both a Pap smear and human papilloma virus (HPV) test, you may be tested every 5 years. HPV is the virus that causes genital warts and several cancers, including cervical cancer.
- Your provider may do pelvic exams more often if you develop problems.
- If you have had your uterus and cervix removed (total hysterectomy), and you have not been diagnosed with cervical cancer, you do not need to have Pap smears.
- Women who are sexually active and at high risk should be screened for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Your provider may talk with you about testing for other infections.
- Your provider will ask you about alcohol and tobacco, and may ask you about depression.
- Your provider may check your skin for signs of skin cancer, especially if you’re at high risk. People at high risk include those who have had skin cancer before, have close relatives with skin cancer, or have a weakened immune system.
LUNG CANCER SCREENING
The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in adults aged 55 to 80 years who:
- Have a 30 pack-year smoking history AND
- Currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years